An agreement on visiting forces is similar to an agreement on the status of troops, except that the former only temporarily cover troops that are not stationed there. A Forces Agreement (SOFA) is an agreement between a host country and a foreign nation that deploys armed forces in that country. SOFAs are often part of a comprehensive security agreement with other types of military agreements. A SOFA is not a safety device; it establishes the rights and privileges of foreign personnel who set up in a host country to support the strengthening of security measures. [1] Under international law, a status-of-force agreement differs from military occupation. A SOFA should clarify the conditions under which the foreign army can operate. As a rule, purely military and operational matters, such as the location of bases and access to facilities, are covered by separate agreements. A SOFA focuses more on legal issues related to military persons and property. This may include issues such as entry and exit into the country, tax obligations, postal services or the conditions of employment of nationals of the host country, but the most controversial issues are civil and criminal justice on bases and personnel. For civil cases, SOFAs provide for how civilian damages caused by the armed forces are identified and paid. Criminal issues vary, but the typical provision in U.S. SOFA is that U.S.

courts have jurisdiction over crimes committed either by a soldier against another soldier or by a soldier as part of his or her military duty, but the host country retains jurisdiction over other crimes. [4] The Model Status-of-The-United Nations Armed Forces Agreement (SOFA) (A/45/494) was developed and promulgated by the Secretary-General of the United Nations in 1990. It establishes the rights, obligations and obligations between the United Nations and the host State of a United Nations peacekeeping mission. The SOFA model is the starting point for discussions between the United Nations and the host State on a SOFA or a Mission Agreement (SOMA) status. The SOFA model is often considered by the Security Council to be legally in force until a mission-specific agreement is reached. The aim of this study is to examine the various SOFAS and SOMAs completed by the United Nations over the past 20 years and to take into account trends in UNITED Nations practice since 1990. A number of key aspects of today`s United Nations peacekeeping efforts are not well addressed in the SOFA model. A UN peacekeeping mission is most effective if it has clear legislation that corresponds to its mandate and activities. The study can identify areas of consistent practice that might warrant an addition to the SOFA model.

More detailed information and preliminary reports can be found in the Documents section of this site….